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BIFA have been contacted by the Clean Air Unit within DEFRA, with an update regarding two Clean Air Zones, Bath which is already operating and Birmingham which will soon do so.

Please refer to the information below:


Bath’s Clean Air Zone has been live for 8 weeks now. DEFRA have seen many people using Business Accounts to check multiple vehicles and pay. Members can check their vehicle’s compliance and make a payment for Bath using the following link Drive in a clean air zone - GOV.UK (


DEFRA are now looking forward to Birmingham’s Clean Air Zone which goes live on 01 June 2021.

Non-compliant buses, coaches, taxis, private hire vehicles, heavy goods vehicles, vans, minibuses and cars travelling in Birmingham’s Clean Air Zone will have to pay a charge.

In preparation for Birmingham’s Clean Air Zone members can:

  • Check to see if they qualify for local exemptions using the following link Exemptions and financial incentives | Brum Breathes
  • Check the financial support on offer Financial incentives | Brum Breathes
  • Sign up for Business Accounts where you can check compliance of multiple vehicles and set up an agreement for the Birmingham Clean Air Zone to pay by bank account as an alternative to paying by card, ready for when charging starts here.

If there are any questions, please contact and these will be forwarded to DEFRA as appropriate.

Container shipping service quality is continuing to worsen, with the number of boxes being rolled increasing.

Figures from freight visibility platform project44 shows the percentage of containers missing their scheduled sailings is rising, with some carriers and ports rolling more than half their cargo in April.

“Carriers have been watching their rollover rates increase for over a year, and have so far failed to mitigate the situation,” said its vice-president Josh Brazil. “Shippers need to accept this as the new reality.

“They are going to have to start making structural adjustments to their supply chains and enhance their visibility if they want to keep shelves stocked and factories running.”

The average rollover rate for April across ports and carriers surveyed by the company was 39%, but there were outliers such as Malaysia’s Port Klang, Rotterdam and Athens showed signs of “endemic congestion”, rolling 64%, 54% and 59% of cargo, respectively.

Hapag-Lloyd, CMA CGM and Ocean Network Express all showed worsening performance in April, posting rollover rates of 51%, 56%, and 53% respectively.

“Other global ports and carriers reported similar numbers showing that abysmal performance now seems to be the industry norm,” project44 said. “With shippers entering their second year of pandemic-induced volatility, these numbers are a sobering reminder that volatility and under capacity are the new normal.

“Furthermore, rates are almost universally trending upwards, and well above the levels posted during April 2020.”

Source: Lloyds Loading List

Shippers are unlikely to find much relief from the current elevated levels of air cargo rates in the foreseeable future due to a continued shortage of capacity and bullish market conditions, according to analysis from a leading global management consultancy and industry insiders.

Moreover, shifting shipments to lower-priced ocean freight is set to remain a non-starter because of the ongoing difficulties in the segment, ranging from a dearth of empty containers and port congestion to blank sailings and a squeeze on space.

Ludwig Hausmann, who leads the air cargo service line within the global transport and logistics practice of McKinsey & Company told Lloyd’s Loading List in an interview that he saw little prospect of change in an air cargo market environment characterised by strong demand on most major trade lanes – driven by a mix of COVID-related shipments, sharp growth in e-commerce volumes and buoyant flows of ‘staple’ airborne commodities such as high-tech and pharma goods – and where high prices have become the norm, much to the dismay of shippers.

“We work with some of the biggest shippers on their supply chains and are fully aware of the dilemma they find themselves in presently. The central, recurring questions we are hearing from them are simply: ‘What should we do? Should we now contract at these escalating (air freight) rates for the coming years and lock ourselves into such levels, or should we bet on spot rates going down again?’

Continued capacity shortage

“What we would say in terms of the general outlook is that in the next 12 to 18 months, there is likely to be a continued supply/capacity shortage on the air freight side, keeping rates high. This rather leaves shippers in a situation where they just have to ‘grin and bear it’, but unfortunately that’s the reality.”

Hausmann played down suggestions that the Suez Canal blockage at the end of March had exacerbated the capacity squeeze in air cargo and driven up rates further – at least to a significant degree. He argues that “most of what is transported by ocean container is not of a value density that will ever find its way into air freight even if the Suez blockage had lasted a month or two.

“However, for shipments which had not yet departed in containers (before the blockage occurred) and those where the commodity to be shipped via ocean was in the high value or super-urgent category – and where it is often a case of a toss-up between using air freight and ocean freight anyway – then, yes, perhaps there has been some latitude for a short-term pivot towards air.”

Forwarder feedback

Various freight forwarders have told Lloyd’s Loading List that conversion from ocean freight has been a significant part of the demand for air freight this year, as importers struggle with congestion and delays at various points within the ocean freight supply chain. And with the aftermath of the late March blockage of the Suez Canal continuing this month, this was continuing to contribute to high air freight prices.

Hausmann’s colleague, Tobias Wölfel, who leads Air Cargo Research at McKinsey’s German office, observed that given the current elevated level of air cargo prices, under normal circumstances shippers would have been looking at the possibilities of a potential shift from air to the lower-priced ocean mode despite the disadvantage of the latter in terms of transit times.

Air to ocean conversion unavailable

“But the difficulties on the ocean side – port congestion, container shortage and one-offs like the Suez blockage – have meant air cargo remaining a strong proposition for high-value and high-urgency shipments. With the emergence of express services for ocean container loads and/or a combination of ocean and air modes, there would have been scope to take a little bit of the pressure off the under-capacity in air cargo; but that obviously only works if a very reliable ocean service can be counted on, which clearly is not the case at the moment.”

Hausmann added: “The shift (from air to ocean) would have been a natural thing in a situation where air freight rates have skyrocketed like they have today. But the window of opportunity to ‘downgrade’ from air to ocean has become extremely narrow because of the decreasing reliability and service quality of ocean shipping itself. Shippers will have to bite the bullet on high air cargo rates for some time yet.”

Several air freight sources have told Lloyd’s Loading List that although there is expected to be some return of passenger belly capacity in the second half of this year, there will continue to be a significant deficit for some time. Furthermore, much of the capacity that is returned is likely to be on intra-regional routes rather than widebody capacity on the intercontinental routes where most air cargo is carried.

Freighter pressure

Reto Hunziker, group cargo director at air charter broker Chapman Freeborn, this week told Lloyd’s Loading List: “We think the market will remain the same for at least this year. PPE requests might go down towards the end of the year, however other verticals like eCommerce, pharma, high-tech, automotive and general cargo will have a stronger demand.

“We expect a strong peak season with high demand during Q3 and Q4. It has then to be seen what happens when PAX demand comes back to an increased level. The ramp up will take a while and will be based on the travel demand. Considering this, we expect that the access to freighter capacity will remain challenging.”

Latest monthly analysis

The latest monthly analysis by industry analysts CLIVE Data Services and TAC Index highlights that global air cargo demand bounced back into growth in April after a slight dip in March, “with high load factors keeping the international air freight system under significant strain as the traditional surge in summer capacity has so far failed to materialise for a second consecutive year”.

CLIVE’s air cargo market data shows volumes in April up 1% over April 2019 and +78% compared to the same month of 2020, continuing the positive trend seen in the opening two months of this year, highlighting that the second half of April 2021 showed particularly strong year-over-year growth, up 6%.

To provide a meaningful perspective of the air cargo industry’s performance, CLIVE Data Services is continuing to focus on comparing the current state of the market to pre-Covid 2019 volume, cargo capacity and load factor data until at least Q3 of this year, produced alongside the 2020 comparison.

Capacity down 18% versus 2019

Despite the similar volumes as in April 2019, the pressure on available airline cargo capacity is much higher, CLIVE highlighted, with overall capacity down 18% versus 2019 “as the increase in belly capacity seen then and in previous years, as airlines increased from winter to summer schedules, remained grounded due to continuing Covid restrictions on international passenger movements”. Consequently, CLIVE’s ‘dynamic loadfactor’ for April of 71% – based on the volume and weight perspectives of cargo flown and capacity available – was 10 percentage points (% pts) higher than in 2019 and 4 pts above the level of a year ago.

Niall van de Wouw, Managing Director of CLIVE Data Services, commented: “This lack of bandwidth capacity-wise is being exacerbated by the fact there is no summer schedule based on passenger demand, which is contributing to the high rates being reported in the market.”

China to Europe ‘completely full’

China to Europe volumes were 18% higher in April 2021 than in 2019, with load factors ex China at 95% or “completely full”, he said. Despite a 10% drop in volumes from Europe to North America compared to 2019, CLIVE’s latest data also shows the fall in capacity of around 40% on this lane, resulting in a dynamic load factor at 87% – 21% pts higher than in 2019.

The decline in North America to Europe volumes is less pronounced at -4% versus 2019, producing a load factor of 69% or 19% points higher than in 2019.

TAC Index data for April “shows the impact of the volume vs. capacity conundrum on air freight rates”, the air freight pricing specialist said. Gareth Sinclair of TAC Index commented: “There has been a big bounce back from the slowdown we saw in March with prices strengthening, driven by demand outstripping capacity in several markets, with some lanes recording higher pricing levels versus the highs seen in 2020.

“The BAI (Baltic Air Freight Indices) increased by almost 17% in April over March largely driven by China (HKG & PVG) with growth around 30% but London Heathrow also saw an improvement on 3 out of 4 indices although at more modest levels (~3%) building on similar growth levels in March. Frankfurt, Chicago and Singapore origins all saw declines over March levels.

“There continues to be a dynamic market environment with operational crewing and permits continuing to impact some carrier operations.”

Market variations

TAC Index says the differences by market can be seen in the performance of the China and Hong Kong markets, which continued to lead the way in terms of price strength, whilst the US and Europe saw a more volatile and mixed picture in April.

For China/Hong Kong to the US (CN/HK-US), April ended on the highest rate this year of US$8.56 or +60% vs. March, with continuous week-on-week increases since 22 February, TAC noted. Prices are up 8% versus last year and 153% higher versus 2019.

HKG-US is exceptionally strong with the highest rate of the year at US$8.65 compared to US$4.91 on 1 March “and is approaching the highest level seen last year of $8.81 in May as market capacity tightens”. The April price is up 29% on the same period last year and +153% over 2019. And data for this week indicate that spot prices have risen beyond that high last May.

“In summary, the air freight market continues to be strong, particularly CN/HK to US, and may continue, at least in the short term, with demand strengthening as countries relax lockdowns and subdued passenger travel continues to impact capacity,” Sinclair said. “With the easing of Hong Kong quarantine rules for crew, Cathay Pacific, for example, are looking to restore their full market presence as soon as possible, which may dampen pricing.”

Forward Freight Agreements

In a further examination this month of air freight pricing expectations, including using Forward Freight Agreements (FFAs) tracked by and available via the Baltic Exchange, Peter Stallion from Freight Investor Services commented: “Riding a wave of cargo on the back of the delays in the Suez, air freight saw a lift ex-Asia with substantial gains across the core Asia-Europe and Asia-US front haul. Much of this was driven by sea-air conversions and a boost on the transpacific lane as a result of the collapse of capacity provided mostly by Cathay Pacific ex-Hong Kong. Cathay had engaged in extremely strict crew quarantine procedures, cutting capacity on routes which have since returned at the tail end of April.

“In terms of forward sentiment, the outlook for the Asia market remains uncertain. However, support from record March and April cargo demand has fed back into price support all the way through into June and July. Given this is typically the start of slack season for air freight, this is almost certainly an upset – on top of the many upsets in 2020 – for company balance sheets, especially those still relying heavily on air cargo. The scale of delays on container freight has maintained the viability of air freight, despite enormous price increases.”

He noted that on transatlantic routes, vaccine cargo and a persistent lack of passenger volume were continuing to support prices, adding: “At the risk of wearing out the record, this has been the consistent factor on transatlantic and indexed backhaul routes. In terms of a cross-market analysis, we have been seeing large volume on the tanker FFA routes, reflecting a large import of clean fuels – most likely jet kerosene – into Europe, driving speculation that passenger schedules will return in force from the end of May onwards. This removes the support for high container prices, if and when passenger volumes return.”

Wrong kind of capacity

But he also indicated that the impact of any returned passenger air capacity may not be so significant as much of it was likely to be on non-core cargo routes, noting: “There is particular focus on the intra-Europe and transatlantic routes, in line with positive progress regarding vaccines. As European governments have provided official guidance regarding holiday travel, this is a positive sign for passenger volumes. There is still doubt as to whether this will impact the long-haul routes, particularly those into East and South East Asia – Singapore is on the road to another lockdown after another bump in COVID cases.”

Source: Lloyds Loading List

  • robust new guidance published to minimise risk of commercial vehicles being used in an attack
  • operators encouraged to improve knowledge of potential risks and develop rigorous security plans
  • latest step taken by government to boost safety and reduce likelihood of terrorists and criminals gaining access to commercial vehicles

New guidance designed to prevent commercial vehicles, including vans, lorries, buses, coaches and even cranes, from being used as weapons in acts of terrorism has been published today (10 May 2021).

The standard, which has been published by the British Standards Institution (BSI) and sponsored by the Department for Transport, sets out a raft of security measures to prevent criminals and terrorists from accessing commercial vehicles.

To meet the new requirements, operators must:

  • improve their knowledge of potential risks and determine which of those risks apply to their business
  • develop a security management plan
  • assess risk exposure
  • put in place management and accountability for security

Other requirements will include checks of drivers’ references and previous employment history and also regular visual checks of vehicles for signs of tampering.

To ensure this new standard is met, the government is working with the industry to develop accreditation and certification schemes for commercial vehicle firms, with further details to be announced in due course.

Attacks on the public involving vehicles, which have been targeted due to their size and potential impact, have had tragic consequences in recent years, including in the Westminster and London Bridge attacks of 2017.

Today’s announcement not only aims to create barriers to carrying out these types of attack but could also assist the fight against serious and organised crime, including helping to minimise the risk of drug and people smuggling.

In 2019, people smuggling resulted in the deaths of 39 Vietnamese nationals, whose bodies were found in a lorry container in Essex. The new guidance is designed to minimise the risk of similar tragic events, which put lives in danger, from happening again.

Transport Minister Robert Courts said:

"This is vital new guidance which will go a long way to help us in our fight against terrorism and organised crime. I wholeheartedly support this move and the British Standards Institution in their important work.

"Terror attacks and organised crime involving commercial vehicles have had tragic and devastating effects in recent years, with every life lost leaving an unimaginable void in the lives of so many.

"This government will continue to work tirelessly to ensure the British public are kept safe."

Nick Fleming, Head of Mobility and Transport Standards at BSI, said:

"This new standard, developed with operators of commercial vehicles, encourages good practice in the managing of security risks that may help to reduce the threat of vehicles being used in acts that may cause intentional harm to the public or for organised crime.

"The standard highlights the growing importance of physical vehicle security measures to help prevent such criminal acts taking place."

The new standard has been developed by transport, safety and crime experts, and is targeted at operators of light and heavy goods vehicles, as well as those of public service vehicles and mobile plant, such as cranes and tip trucks.

Source: GOV.UK

Two-year spot freight rate trend for the World Container Index:

Our detailed assessment for Thursday, 6 May 2021

  • The composite index increased 9.8% or $489 this week, and also, remains 278.4% higher than a year ago.
  • The average composite index of the WCI, assessed by Drewry for year-to-date, is $5,110 per 40ft container, which is $3,272 higher than the five-year average of $1,838 per 40ft container.
  • Drewry’s composite World Container index increased 9.8% or $489 to $5,472.33 per 40ft container. Freight rates on Shanghai-Los Angeles gained $808 to $5,211 for a 40ft container and those on Shanghai-Rotterdam rose $788 for a 40ft box. Likewise, rates on Shanghai-New York surged $678 to $7,007 per feu. Also, rates on Shanghai-Genoa grew $264 to $8,532 for a 40ft container and those on Rotterdam-Shanghai inched up $26 to $1,394 for a 40ft box. We expect the index to remain stable next week.

Our latest freight rate assessments on eight major East-West trades:

Spot freight rates by route - assessed by Drewry

Spot freight rates by route - assessed by Drewry

Source: Drewry

UNCTAD report

Additionally, the report estimates that global e-commerce sales jumped to $26.7 trillion in 2019, up 4% from 2018, according to the latest available estimates. This includes business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) sales and is equivalent to 30% of global gross domestic product (GDP) that year.

The report shows that the value of global B2B e-commerce in 2019 at $21.8 trillion, representing 82% of all e-commerce. The United States continued to dominate the overall e-commerce market, ahead of Japan and China. Meanwhile, B2C e-commerce sales were estimated at $4.9 trillion in 2019, up 11% over 2018. The top three countries by B2C e-commerce sales remained China, the United States and the United Kingdom. Cross-border B2C e-commerce amounted to some $440 billion in 2019, an increase of 9% over 2018. The UNCTAD report also notes that the share of online shoppers making cross-border purchases rose from 20% in 2017 to 25% in 2019.

Source: UNCTAD

The Suez Canal Authority has been demanding $916m in damages from the six-day blockage that the huge 400 m long ship created on the waterway.

The ship has been arrested and is anchored at the Bitter Lakes area while its owner and insurance parties negotiate with Egyptian authorities over the price for its release. In the meantime, crew who have worked their contract lengths have been allowed to head home and be replaced.

General average has been declared by the ship’s owner with shippers braced for a big bill to get the 18,300 containers onboard moved to their European destinations.

Shoei Kisen has applied the International Convention on Limitation of Liability on the Ever Given, whereby it will aim to cap claims to a maximum of $115m.


At BIFA we receive regular enquiries from Members regarding terms and conditions, which dependent on circumstances may be overridden by international convention, these become particularly relevant at time of a major incident resulting in claims.

BIFA Associate Member, Hill Dickinson have prepared a helpful summary of the main conventions which are relevant to claims for the carriage of goods by road, sea, air and rail. This digest outlines the key components for such claims, including identifying notification dates, time limits to sue, limitation in respect of loss and the relevant jurisdiction.

This summary can be viewed at: conventions-summary-april-2021.pdf (

BIFA would like to thank Hill Dickinson for allowing the reproduction of their summary.

Because comparisons between 2021 and 2020 monthly results are distorted by the extraordinary impact of COVID-19, unless otherwise noted all comparisons to follow are to March 2019 which followed a normal demand pattern.

  • Global demand, measured in cargo tonne-kilometers (CTKs), was up 4.4% compared to March 2019 and 0.4% compared to February 2021. This was a slower rate of growth than the previous month, which saw demand increase 9.2% compared to February 2019. A weaker performance by Asia-Pacific and African carriers compared to February contributed to softer growth in March.

  • Global capacity, measured in available cargo tonne-kilometers (ACTKs), continued to recover in March, up 5.6% compared to the previous month. Despite this, capacity remans 11.7% below pre-COVID-19 levels (March 2019) due to the ongoing grounding of passenger aircraft. Airlines continue to use dedicated freighters to plug the lack of available belly-capacity. International capacity from dedicated freighters rose 20.6% in March 2021 compared to the same month in 2019 and belly-cargo capacity of passenger aircraft dropped by 38.4%.

  • Underlying economic conditions remain supportive for air cargo:

    • This is evidenced in the new export orders component of the manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) which stood at 53.4 in March. Results above 50 indicate manufacturing growth versus the prior month.

    • Demand for exports grew broadly in March. This was concentrated in developed countries during January and February.

    • Delivery times for manufactured goods are increasing which normally indicates increased demand for air cargo in efforts to reduce shipping time.

    • Global trade rose 0.3% in February – the ninth consecutive monthly increase and the longest continuous growth in more than two decades.

“Air cargo continues to be the bright spot for aviation. Demand reached an all-time high in March, up 4.4% compared to pre-COVID levels (March, 2019). And airlines are taking all measures to find the needed capacity. The crisis has shown that air cargo can meet fundamental challenges by adopting innovations quickly. That is how it is meeting growing demand even as much of the passenger fleet remains grounded. The sector needs to retain this momentum post-crisis to drive the sector’s long-term efficiency with digitalization,” said Willie Walsh, IATA’s Director General.

March 2021
(% chg vs the same month in 2019)

World share1





Total Market












Asia Pacific












Latin America






Middle East






North America






¹% of industry CTKs in 2020   ²change in load factor vs 2019   ³Load factor level

March Regional Performance

  • Asia-Pacific airlines saw demand for international air cargo drop 0.3% in March 2021 compared to the same month in 2019. The slight weakness in performance compared to the previous month was seen on most of the trade lanes connected with Asia. International capacity remained constrained in the region, down 20.7% versus March 2019. The region’s airlines reported the highest international load factor at 78.4%.

  • North American carriers posted a 14.5% increase in international demand in March compared to March 2019. This strong performance reflects the strength of the economic recovery in the US. In Q1, US GDP rose by 6.4% in annualized terms, up from 4.3% in Q4 bringing the country’s economy close to pre-COVID levels. The business environment for air cargo remains supportive; the new export orders component of the PMI rose to its highest level since 2007. International capacity grew by 1.8% compared with March 2019.

  • European carriers posted a 0.7% increase in demand in March compared to the same month in 2019. Improved operating conditions and recovering export orders contributed to the positive performance. International capacity decreased by 17% in March 2021 versus March 2019.

  • Middle Eastern carriers posted a 9.2% rise in international cargo volumes in March 2021 versus March 2019. Month-on-month, Middle East carriers posted the strongest growth of all regions, up 4.4%. Of the region’s key international routes, Middle East-North America and Middle East-Asia have provided the most significant support, rising 28% and 17% respectively in March compared to March 2019. International capacity in March was down 12.4% compared to the same month in 2019.

  • Latin American carriers reported a decline of 23.6% in international cargo volumes in March compared to the 2019 period; this was the worst performance of all regions. Drivers of air cargo demand in Latin America remain relatively less supportive than in the other regions. International capacity decreased 46.0% compared with March 2019.

  • African airlines’ cargo demand in March increased 24.6% compared to the same month in 2019, the strongest of all regions. Robust expansion on the Asia-Africa trade lanes contributed to the strong growth. March international capacity decreased by 2.1% compared to March 2019.

View the March 2021 Air Cargo Market Analysis (pdf)




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